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A malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a wine fermentation that converts malic acid into lactic acid and carbon dioxide. It can be achieved with the use of malolactic yeast cultures. Wines which have gone through malolactic fermentation will typically be lower in acidity, higher in pH, and softer in character. Fruitiness will be reduced, but the wine will be more complex. MLF is typically achieved through malolactic cultures, also known as malolactic bacteria.
The addition of a malolactic nutrient will improve the growth conditions for the bacteria and encourage a faster, more successful malolactic fermentation. Malolactic nutrients are strongly recommended if your wine has any of the following characteristics: High alcohol content, High SO2 levels, Low pH, or temperature extremes (too high or too low).